The Northern Taiga: plants and trees
Taiga forest is the largest ecosystem of northern Eurasia, North America and Scandinavia. The plants of the taiga is mainly coniferous trees, mosses, lichens and small shrubs. However, there are several types of taiga forests, which are dominated by one or another of the plant. Taiga forest is divided into light-coniferous taiga, which is dominated by pine and larch, and dark coniferous taiga - dominated: spruce, Siberian cedar, fir. Taiga soil sod-podzolic sour.
First, let's look at the natural habitat of these plants:
Geographic zone of taiga
We see that these pine forests spread almost all over the north land. From myself I want to add that even covered with taiga mountains of the European Alps, the Carpathians, the Rocky Mountains of North America that is not shown in the diagram.
Conifer of the taiga
The most important representative of the taiga. The basis of the dark coniferous taiga, which has become its symbol. Most often spruce grows in mixed forests, but for frequent is main forest. Fir wood used in logging, it is suitable for construction, though slightly worse than the pine wood. Pine cone spruce appears between the ages of 15 and 50 years, depending on the place of growth. The interval between 3-5 years crop. Pine needles, pine cones, are rich in vitamin C and other nutrients, as well they contain many essential oils. Needles highlights volatile, playing the role of antibiotic.
Scotch pine, along with spruce is widespread in Russia. Basis svetlohvoynoy taiga. Pine wood is widely used in construction, due to the high resin content, is one of the finest natural materials in the taiga zone. The resin has a very pleasant smell, is used for the distillation of tar, turpentine, rosin. Earlier resins are widely used in shipbuilding and other construction that require preserving properties of pine. The needles contain vitamin C and other nutrients.
I call fir tree most gentle trees of the dark taiga, in view of the fact that its needles are very soft and not how much prick. "Paws" fir is good to use for bedding, if you spend the night in the woods without a tent and foam-mat. I also prefer to drink tea, brewed with needles. Tea turns fragrant, though not a vitamin, since the vitamins are destroyed by heating. Little fir wood is used, it is poorly suited for building. Fir - more medicinal tree, rather than material for construction. Fir sap can cover up the wounds - it has an antiseptic effect and contributes to their rapid healing. Fir oil is widely used in cosmetics.
About Siberian cedar I already have an article. Let me just say that this is the most noble tree dark taiga. Pine nuts are highly valued because of its rich nutrients. The presence of cedar in the forest suggests the presence in her furs that another important factor is not small. Cedar wood is used in construction, carpentry business. It has a reddish color and a pleasant smell. Resinous wood is less than the pine wood. Cedar live up to 800 years. The growing period of 40-45 days in a year. Cones ripen within 14-15 months. Each lump contains 30 to 150 nuts. Cedar begins to bear fruit in an average of 60 years, sometimes even later.
Larch forest, Yakutia
Larch - this is the most hardy tree, the taiga zone. It grows in mixed forests, but most of all, because of its resistance to frost - produce mono larch forest, larch. Larch can withstand temperatures -70 ° C, and even more. The needles are annual, not how much barbed mild. Larch loves bright terrain, so the dark woods to meet her so hard. Usually it will be lonely trees or mono larch forests. Larch wood is very dense, due to the small growing season. It has a lot of rings. A thin tree can be a very great age. Very suitable for building, is a welcome material for the manufacture of the first rows of the taiga winter camps. Wood is not afraid of water and slowly rotting away. It contains a lot of pitches.
Deciduous trees and shrubs of the taiga forest
The most popular representative in the taiga coniferous forest. Is widespread. Present in almost all the mixed forests of northern latitude. It is widely used in almost all parts of the tree. The wood is used for construction, handicrafts, carpentry. The bark extract tar, manufactures a variety of items, it is well lit. In the spring of live birch extract juice are rich in vitamins, sugars. Kidneys and leaves are used in medicine.
Another representative of the hardwoods in the forest. Aspen is a relative of poplar, their bark can even be confused. Used for landscaping settlements as a fast-growing tree. The bark is used for tanning leather. It is used to produce yellow and green paint.
With flowers in April Aspen bees collect pollen from blooming and kidneys - the glue that is processed into propolis. Going to build a house, used as a roofing material (in Russian wooden architecture of the planks of aspen covered domes of the churches), in the manufacture of plywood, pulp, matches, packaging and so on. New growth is a winter forage for elk, deer, hares and other mammals. Is a medicinal plant. Aspen has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitussive, cholagogue and anthelmintic activity. The combination of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties in the bark of an aspen makes it promising in treatment of tuberculosis, smallpox, malaria, syphilis, dysentery, pneumonia, cough, different backgrounds, rheumatism and inflammation of the mucous membrane of the urinary bladder. The aqueous extract of aspen bark is used to treat opistorhoza.
From the family of Birch. To the north is a small shrub in the south - a tree about 6 m in height. Distributed in the taiga zone, is less common birch and aspen. It grows in wet soils. The bark and leaves give the paint for animal skins. Almost never used in everyday life. Is food for moose and serves as a shelter for game animals.
In the taiga forest guest fairly rare, growing mainly in the south, in the central part of Russia, which where in western Siberia and the Amur taiga. Wood is widely used in carpentry, joinery, well treated, because of its softness. Some parts of lime produce drugs, and as it is an excellent honey plant. From the lower part of the bark of a tree produce wool, russian traditional sandals "lapty", mats.
Widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia and North America. It grows everywhere in the forest. The use rowan is not great. The berries are edible, rowan is a honey plant, timber for joinery. The berries are used in folk medicine as an antiscorbutic, hemostatic, diaphoretic, diuretic, cholagogue, laxative and as a remedy for headaches. Fresh mountain ash fruits have a bitter taste, but the first frost lead to the destruction of bitter glycoside sorbic acid, and the bitterness disappears. Fruits are the most famous varieties of mountain ash (Nevezhinskaja) containing up to 9% of sugar, have a sweet taste and before frost.
A small shrub, native to the forest everywhere. Grows well as in the mountains of Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan. Fruits - shishkoyagody comprise sugars, organic acids and minerals. Juniper is widely used in folk medicine because of the high content of volatile production. Used in the treatment of various diseases such as tuberculosis, renal disease, bronchitis, etc.
Siberian dwarf pine
It grows in relatively mountainous areas on the border of the taiga and tundra. It grows on rocks, very slowly, live up to 250 years. Japanese stone pine oleoresin is very rich in various substances. Of gum turpentine is obtained, which is antiseptic, diuretic, rubefacient and vermifuge. It is used to treat kidney and bladder. Nuts are rich in nutrients and not nearly as inferior to his older brother - the Siberian cedar. Previously used as anti-scorbutic needles agent it also contains carotene than carrots.
Taiga berry is a small shrubs. Berry and blueberry leaves are used in folk medicine. It grows in the taiga, swamps. The berries have a pleasant, sweet taste. Their use in the treatment of the eye, gastrointestinal tract, etc. Blueberries fixes, it is used for diarrhea, with an excess of it causes constipation.
Prevails mostly in the light coniferous taiga, like clearings in the pine and mixed forests. Strawberries are considered to be one of the most delicious wild berries, because of this, the average person can consume at a time, a very large number of berries, forgetting the fact that he was collecting for the future. Strawberry contains many useful substances, vitamins, acids and micronutrients. Its use for the treatment of atherosclerosis, neurasthenia, hypertension and insomnia, as well as in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.
Lingonberry grows in peat bogs, as well as in dry forests, dominated by different vegetation. The berries are widely used in food, including cooked jam or eaten fresh. Berries, cranberries, like cranberries or when not spoil, because of the content in them, a natural preservative - benzoic acid. Analogs of which (sodium benzoate) is used in the food industry. In medicine, use the leaves, cranberries, as well as their brews and get a wonderful drink. Cranberries are used for kidney disease, diabetes, rheumatism, tuberculosis and high blood pressure.
Cranberries grow in bogs, all over the place. Typically, where the cranberries - and there sphagnum thickets. Even the photo shows that friendship between sphagnum moss, and taxon Cranberries. The chemical composition of the berry is diverse, contains a large number of different acids that is felt by its sour taste. Just as cranberries contains benzoic acid and when did not deteriorate. The photo shows already ripe cranberries, dark in color, it is the least sour taste. Cranberries full of vitamins and minerals - it's just a storehouse of nutrients. It removes radionuclides, which is extremely important for the urban everyman! Portal of the Free-Freedom! encourages you to this wonderful berry!
It grows throughout the Northern Hemisphere. He likes to grow in a mountainous area on the border of the taiga and tundra. In the mountain tundra, this berry is easier to meet than in the lowland forest. The berries are similar to blueberries. It is said that the antioxidants in blueberries, inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Berries strengthen the walls of blood vessels, normalizes the digestive system and the heart. With regular use of berries relieve eye strain and help to restore vision.
Many of you will say, "What the heck is crowberry is that?" - But It is a berry! It grows mainly on the edge of the forest and tundra, at least I met her just such an area. As well it grows in bogs. It tastes watery than justifies its name. Crowberry includes various nutrients, vitamin C, carotene, sugars and manganese.
Another great plants of taiga. Briar grows everywhere in the taiga forest. Contains large amounts of vitamin C, as well carotene, vitamin P, B1, B, K, E, and trace elements. Rose hips are ready for use in the autumn, from September to October. But with the first frost they too can be there, they will taste a little dry, the overripe. In folk medicine used tea made from rose hips, and napar, water infusion and alcohol tincture of scarlet fever, typhoid, tuberculosis, kidney inflammation, diseases of the intestine, liver and stomach.
Also one of the most popular and beloved of our berries. It grows mainly in mixed or pine forests. And also in your garden) Raspberries are very hardy shrub, growing, occupies the whole of the mixed forest undergrowth. Raspberry contains vitamins C, A, B, sugar, acids. The seeds contain about 20% fatty oil. Raspberry treat the common cold, flu. Once you ate raspberries to dump - do not be in the draft, otherwise you can easily blow, since raspberries diaphoretic.
Another berry that grows primarily in every gardener in the garden. But it also can be found in the wild, in the taiga zone, but rarely, since the acidic soil, it does not. Currant has diaphoretic, diuretic, and as well as hips, contains large amounts of vitamin C. As well as other nutrients, and that you do not want to transfer. And that list them - you need to take and eat! Personally, among other things, like even brew the tea leaves. It turns out very fragrant, forest tea. In medicine, currants use for the treatment of F / K tract, ulcers, gastritis.
Honestly, have not tried it once. Probably because it grows mainly in mountainous areas and in the northern hemisphere, in the tundra. For example, on the Yamal Peninsula, in the Arctic Circle. It also can be seen in sphagnum bogs. Contains sugars, proteins, acids and vitamins. It contains a lot of potassium, phosphorus, iron, cobalt, anthocyanins, tannins and pectin. Cloudberry used in dietary and nutritional therapy for the treatment of cardiovascular and gastro-intestinal diseases, burns and skin diseases, heavy metal poisoning, as febrifuge. Berry cloudberry have antimicrobial, diaphoretic, antispasmodic action. According to the content of provitamin A cloudberry superior carrots.
Fruits and leaves are taken as a tincture in folk medicine as a diuretic, gastritis with low acidity, cancer. The roots of cloudberries are used as a diuretic, nephrolithiasis, vitamin deficiency, metabolic disorders, colds and malaria. Cloudberry juice to lubricate the affected areas of the skin itch. Cloudberry is effective in the treatment of non-healing wounds. In this case, use berries and other plant parts: leaves, roots, sepals.
Mosses and lichens
In my opinion, the most popular type of moss in taiga forest. Its presence indicates waterlogged soil. Incidentally formed of sphagnum peat. Sphagnum is very hygroscopic, and nearly all of water. It is widely used in construction, caulking cracks between the logs to them. It prevents decay, because it contains preservatives. During the two world wars, soldiers, for lack of medicines - have used sphagnum moss as bandaging a material that promotes rapid healing of wounds.
Another representative of the mosses. In Russia, found in the northern and middle belt, mostly in forested areas. It grows in moist boreal forests, wet meadows and marshes.
White moss edible. It is also called reindeer moss, because it eats reindeer. Lichen is not afraid of any frost and contains Ustinov acid, which has antibacterial properties. The indigenous peoples of the north put in moss raw meat, which does not spoil it for many days. Do moss large nutritional value, 1 part moss replaces 3 of the potatoes. Therefore, it can be eaten even people.